Nmap is a network mapper that has emerged as one of the most popular and free network discovery tool. Most of the hackers and the pentesters are using this tool for scanning the networks. Nmap is a open source tool which you can download it from here. In Kali linux and parrot it’s inbuilt tool. Just type Nmap it will execute.
About the Nmap Tool
Nmap is a network scanning tool that uses IP packets to identify all devices are connected to network or internet. Its choice of hackers in which they can easily find open ports, which operating systems (OS) you are using and architectures. This tool is also be used for testing the security and find the vulnerability in the network.
Difference Between Nmap and Zenmap
There is no much difference in both tool, both are open source tool and used for network scanning and but Nmap is CLI (Command Line) based tool while Zenmap is GUI ( Graphical User Interface ) based tool. Both is available on many operating system such as (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X etc). Nmap tool is easy to use for beginners in which has lot of additional features. Nmap is pre-installed tool in various os such as parrot os and kali linux while Zenmap is not a pre-installed tool you will have to download form the outside source or official website so you have to try more as compare Nmap.
First we will install zenmap in our kali machine and for this you have to add the following configuration in sources.list file.
After open the file add the source commands by given below.
deb http://http.kali.org/kali kali-rolling main non-free contrib
deb-src http://http.kali.org/kali kali-rolling main contrib non-free
deb http://ftp.de.debian.org/debian stretch main
deb http://old.kali.org/kali sana main non-free contrib
deb-src http://old.kali.org/kali sana main non-free contrib
deb http://old.kali.org/kali moto main non-free contrib
deb-src http://old.kali.org/kali moto main non-free contrib.
Run the following command to install Zenmap.
apt-get install zenmap
Now you can start your zenmap tool using the following commmand.
Lets take a look as beginners!! 🙂
Host scan is use to check how many host are active in network by send the ARP ( Address Resolution Protocol ) request to all host in.
1) nmap -sn <IP range>
2) nmap -sP <IP range>
nmap -sP 192.168.0.1-255
This will tell you the number of TCP/UDP ports open from 1 to 65535.
command 🙂 nmap <target>
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) uses a three-way handshake process to establish and maintain a network conversation. If you only want to know about TCP ports then you can use this command.
command 🙂 nmap [Scan TCP] [target IP]
nmap -sT 184.108.40.206
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is also be used for communicate or data transmission but cause of unreliable packet delivery and packets drops it is not use. In the testing purpose UDP protocol are use to check the availability to UDP ports.
command : ) nmap [scan UDP] [target IP]
nmap -sU 192.168.0.111
OS Detection scan
If you want to get information about the operating system of the target machine so you can add ‘o’ syntax in your command.
command 🙂 nmap [operating system] [target IP]
nmap -O 192.168.0.111
Port range scan
If you suspect that the middle ports may be open so you can set the range of protocols.
command 🙂 nmap [range] [target IP]
nmap -p0-300 192.168.0.111
Sometimes we need to scan only specific port of target machine, Hence we can easily scan the particular port by adding ‘-p’ syntax.
command 🙂 nmap [port number] [target IP]
nmap -p21 192.168.0.1
If penetration testers want to test that whether the port version is visible, they can use the following command.
command 🙂 nmap [scan version] [target IP]
nmap -sV -p80 192.168.0.111
The protocol scan is useful for beginners to determine which port are work on which protocol.
command 🙂 nmap [scan protocol] [target IP]
nmap -sO 192.168.0.111
Script scan is advantage for penetration tester to detect the service vulnerability, Malware threat and more information about it.
command 🙂 nmap [script scan] [target IP]
nmap -sO 192.168.0.111
Aggressive scan is time taking scan because it run four scan at a time such as :
-O : OS detection
-sV : version scanning
–sC : script scanning
-traceroute : traceroute ( Hopes Count )
commands 🙂 nmap [Aggressive] [target IP]
nmap -A 192.168.0.111
If you are taking this much time to scan the ports so you can go with fast scan option. As you can see in below given image when we execute the normal scan so latency time had 0.00060 sec but when we execute the fast scan then the latency arrive at 0.00050 second.
command 🙂 nmap [fast sscan] [target IP]
nmap -F 192.168.0.111
Timing Template Scan
Timing scan is use for reducing the scanning time. Nmap offers six timing templates scan which is known such as :
If you will try to use aggressive scan or insane scan so it will skip some ports, that is problem with it. In our case we will choose normal scan.
command 🙂 nmap [-T0, -T1, -T2, -T3, -T4, -T5[ [target IP]
nmap -T3 192.168.0.111
If you want to scan the select target so you can put the host details such as IP address in Txt file.
After that execute the following command to obtain the deep details about the IP address.
command : ) nmap [list] [list location]
nmap -iL target.txt
Sometime penetration tester wants to store their outputs in file so they can use the following commands.
command 🙂 nmap [target IP] [-o] [output location]
nmap 192.168.0.111 -o result.txt
A keen learner and passionate IT student. He has done Web designing, CCNA, RedHat, Ethical hacking, Network & web penetration testing. Currently, he is completing his graduation and learning about Red teaming, CTF challenges & Blue teaming.